A city can be defined as ‘smart’ when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory action and engagement. To the spanish economy expert Gildo Seisdedos Domínguez, the smart city concept essentially means efficiency. But efficiency based on the intelligent management and integrated ICTs, and active citizen participation. Then implies a new kind of governance, genuine citizen involvement in public policy.
The project was launched globally with the city of Rio de Janeiro who has played the role of a pioneer of the first examples of intelligent implementation of technology in order to improve community life and reduce waste in many different areas, ranging from the energy sector to that of waste management.
In Europe we began to talk in terms of “Smart” more recently (2010). The European Union provides for a total expenditure that is between 10 and 12 billion euros over a period of time that extends until 2020.
The investments in the account are to finance (or at least encourage) the projects of the European cities that aspire to become “smart”. These projects have turned to eco-sustainability of urban development, the reduction of energy waste and the drastic reduction of pollution thanks to an improvement in urban planning and transport.