The use of subsea pipelines interesting now the most various engineering applications, and are finding great development especially in the field of oil and gas pipelines for the use of offshore fields but also in the hydraulic field for example for the construction of aqueducts for feeding the drinking water of islands, for the realization of the sections to sea outfalls effluents from the treatment plants or for the realizations of variants of tracks on the coastal for areas heavily populated.
With modern technology the subsea pipelines can be realized both in conventional waters, that the sea areas with depths up to 500 m, is in deep water (over 500 m).
The most commonly used material for underwater pipelines is the steel, which has the advantage of having a considerable specific weight and to ensure a good resistance to towing, while being remarkably sensitive to corrosion.
Therefore, to ensure the durability of this material is necessary to endow the steel pipe of an efficient system of cathodic protection through a sacrificial anode.
Compared to pipes used for laying in the ground, those for underwater pipelines, because of external pressures and bending stresses during laying they must be carried out with steels having high mechanical strengths.
For release into the sea of purified waste water, over the steel are frequently used also cast iron, plastics, polyester reinforced with glass fiber and cement-based materials.
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